There are two methods to be used for pellet feed production. One of them is adopted depending on many issues such as the structure of pellet mill, type of feeds and the status of raw materials.
Sümeyye Selin KUNDAKÇI
Industrial Engineer – R&D Expert
The feed industry is growing rapidly all over the world. The increase in total feed production because of improvements in animal husbandry has brought along the increase in demand for feed machines. In recent years, this growth in the sector has not only increased the demand for feed machines, but also made the consumer more conscious. These developments in the sector show that the feed sector in the world and in our country has the potential of growth.
According to the data received from Turkey Feed Industrialists Association, compound feed production in Turkey has passed 22.4 million tons in 2017, increasing by 10 percent compared to 2016. In the same period, broiler feed production increased by 4 percent to 4.8 million tons and eggs feed production increased by 14 percent to 3.4 million tons. Together with other poultry feeds, total poultry feed production increased by 7 percent to 8.9 million tons. Our production of ruminant feed has increased by 12 percent to 13 million tons. Fish feed production increased by 11 percent to 513 thousand tons.
If we talk about the historical development of the feed sector in Turkey, it started with the establishment of the Feed Industry Turk Inc. Later on, the private sector continued to progress with the establishment of composite feed mills; in line with the development of animal husbandry, the importance given to the feed sector in our country has also increased.
MAIN COST: FEED
According to 2017 TURKSTAT data, the number of bovine is 16 million 105 thousand 25, the number of ovine is 44 million 312 thousand 308 in Turkey, achieved together with the improvement of animal husbandry. The number of ovine and bovines is not in the desired potential in Turkey despite the recent increases. We can list the reasons as the lack of knowledge about ovine breeding, not providing suitable rangelands and high operating and feed costs.
Without any doubts, the most important expense item in bovine, ovine and poultry husbandry is the feed cost. When we examine the costs, the approximate rate of feed in an operating cost of an animal is around 70 percent. The high cost in ovine husbandry is the main reason why there are fewer sheep and goats. The quarter of meat production and twenty percent of milk production are obtained from sheep.
Besides, one can say that the most important factor in determining the animal’s health is feed. For this reason, it is important for companies that provide feed for ovine prepares this feed in the right ratio and content in line the animal’s growth period. There is a need for a feed mill established by a specialized team to ensure that the feed mills get the right ration and feed. When we examine the general structure of feed mills, we can list main processes as crushing, mixing, pelletizing and packing. The better the main processes are designed for a feed plant, the better the feed will be. The expected output of these feeds will be proportional to the quality of the feed. The establishment of the feed factory, the preparation of the feed, and the providing of animal feed, i.e., all processes are interrelated and linked. The beginning and continuation of this process depend on a feed mill that was established by a team of expert and designed correctly.
PREPARATION OF SHEEP AND GOATS’ FEED
The system in the preparation of ovine’s feed is similar to the system in the preparation of bovine and poultry’s feed. The process starts with the storage of raw materials barley, corn, bush, and bran in the raw material buying silo. After elimination process, raw materials are crushed in mills. Later, they are brought into mixers. Molasses and oil are optionally added to the mixer with premix additives and tempered at appropriate temperature and speed to provide the desired homogenization.
This mixture is delivered to the pellet pressing machine after the humidity rate of this mixture is increased with steam, and it is gelatinization with the effect of temperature. Then, this mixture prepared in pellet pressing machines is compressed between suction drum, known as disc, and musters inside the machine; this mixture is turned into pellet through going discs.
For sheep and goats, the choice of pellet disc, the most important equipment, is vital for the feed mills. Selecting the hole diameter and hole distribution correctly according to the desired pellet size will increase the feed efficiency and production capacity. Failure to select the proper disc can result in problems such as failures, low capacity and tearing of discs. When we think of disk costs, such failures will be important for feed plants. Any breakdown will cause the production to stop and cause serious financial loss.
In the ovine feed sector, it is important that the feed is crushed in the proper format, mixed in the appropriate ratio, and especially cooked at the proper temperature. This is why it is important to add the right ingredients. Automatic operation of premixing units and automation control of feed mills provide great convenience in the mixing ratio. In Turkey, during the last twenty years, there has been a great increase in the transition to automation in feed mills. As the Yemtar R&D Center, we aimed to make smart factory; we made the necessary preliminary work. I would like to say that we have the project, which has been approved by TÜBİTAK.
ENERGY SAVING REQUIRED IN EVERY STAGE
Another important issue in feed plants is energy-saving. Because every parameter we save will return to us as value added. In other words, if we can create energy-saving processes in feed plants we build, this will reduce operating costs. Decrease in operating costs will reduce feed prices. This will relieve animal breeders and accelerate the development of animal husbandry. For this reason, energy-saving factories and appropriate machine design are very important in the sector. In many countries, machine development is constantly monitored, and policies are created for energy saving. For example, according to targets set by the UK Agricultural Supply Trade Association (UKASTA), it was targeted to decrease the compound feed sector’s specific energy consumption by 7.1 percent to 151.5 kWh / ton by 2010 from 163.1 kWh / ton in 1999. There is a need for such policies in our country and in the world in this direction. Demand for energy saving is increasing in our country in recent years.
ONE CANNOT DEVELOP SOMETHING THAT ONE CANNOT MEASURE
On the other hand, one needs to put an emphasis on something that the sector needs: Regular data recording. It is because we cannot develop something we cannot measure. When the data in the feed sector is examined, it is seen that regular data recording is quite inadequate. Likewise, we also need to record data when we want to examine the development of a machine in feed plants. In modern factories with advanced automation, data are gathered and used in a common database with the help of sensors. When machines are broken down, the source of this malfunction and the solutions to this malfunction are used as sources when a machine design is in process. Additionally, registry of feed ration in the ovine sector, which feeds are provided to race animals and the examination of growth stages are important. The milk efficiency and examination of animals based on feed should be examined and registered.
Generally speaking, the number of ovine is increasing all over the world. The number of the factories producing ovine feed is expected to increase as well, due to this course of events. Being designed by a team of experts, conscious capacity and energy calculations, selecting the materials and equipment in line with feed content are all very important parameters determining the quality of ovine feed to be produced. Besides, productions processes and recording the data will provide information data for the sector which will facilitate to understand the efficiency of machinery.
We are known as a firm breaking new grounds in the sector. We want to successfully complete the projects we work on and increase our current experience. In this way, we aim to develop our company and country. We wish to achieve many firsts in the sector…
In our previous article titled "POULTRY FEED PRODUCTION, PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES AND FEED ADDITIVES" information is given about "cover story, Poultry Feed Production ve PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES AND FEED ADDITIVES".